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With Character in MindPride Problems     << Ch. 12 >>
These are the proverbs of King Solomon of Israel, David's son.
He wrote them to teach his people how to live-- how to act in every circumstance, for he wanted them to be understanding, just and fair in everything they did.
- Proverbs 1:1-3 (TLB)

Our Purpose: A Godly Child
Once proper respect for parents has been achieved and your authority recognized, a constant undercurrent of rebellion should no longer exist in your home. There should no longer be constant power struggles or reoccurring temper tantrums. Peace and joy should reign in general, and when, through the course of the day, your child does something disagreeable, a few words of rebuke should be all that is needed to straighten out the matter. Of course, in reality, our parenting career is not over just because we�ve made it through the most difficult stage, that of gaining our child�s respect. But now it should at least be well manageable. Now that the worst is over, we can slow down and view parenting more with an eye toward shaping the character of our child as that old tomato stake shapes and supports the tomato plant until it is strong, mature and fruitful. 

In the next few chapters, I am going to share a number things I�ve learned over the years regarding different aspects of character training and nurturing in children. Dispersed between my ponderings I have included many more questions from parents regarding ongoing problems they are having with their children. I hope that my practical suggestions to these parents on how to deal with these problems will help illustrate the principles I am trying to convey. 

I have labeled and arranged these stories according to the character issue I felt was most pronounced in each case, not only to make them easier to locate and refer back to, but also in order to draw attention to your real purpose in disciplining: 

We should not be disciplining and training just to produce a mannerly child we can show off in public, but in order to bring our beloved children into conformity to the image of Christ, so that they will be well prepared in their hearts and habits when God calls them into His service.

As you read on, please notice that it�s not all about spanking, or even about keeping your child at your side, tightly Tomato Staked 24/7. That part should be should be over with and you should be moving on to more of a lifestyle of looser Tomato Staking, involving much teaching, mentoring, nurturing, and fellowshipping, punctuated with various types of discipline used occasionally as needed, and adjusted according to the individuality of each child and situation.

Most of the following will still refer to toddlers through the grade school ages. Older children and teens will be mentioned briefly in the Appendix and perhaps in a later book.

It is by his deeds that a lad distinguishes himself if his conduct is pure and right.
- Proverbs 20:11

As I first began organizing this material by character quality, I noticed that arrogance and pride started popping up in a great number of the stories and letters. It became obvious to me that pride is at the root of many, many of the behavioral issues we have with our children. So I decided to gather some of the most obviously pride related problems together and cover them all in one chapter. So here we are.

Rather than focusing immediately on correcting the child�s symptoms of arrogance in this first go round, I�d like to point a finger at the parents of the typically arrogant child, for they are the ones who are largely at fault. Sure, all children have a tendency toward pride and arrogance. We are all born self-centered, and from there it is a very short step to selfishness, then pride. Most adults still have unresolved pride issues to some degree or another, and if they don�t see or won�t admit to the vice in themselves, they will certainly not see it in their precious children. Excuses ensue and disaster awaits. 

When their child is small and demands to put on his own shoes without their help, they will overlook his attitude and believe he is just demonstrating the first signs of self-reliance and they will eagerly accommodate him. When he gets a little older and insists on choosing which clothes he wears every morning, they will overlook his spirit again, and think he is just naturally blessed with good color-sense and they will encourage him with even more free choices. When he begins commanding other children in regard to the best way to play every game, and correcting them regarding every topic they bring up to discuss, his parents will once more miss the state of his heart and simply see their child as smarter than the rest of the children in the world and congratulate themselves on what a good job they did birthing and educating him. And so it goes, until one day they wake up and find they have a ten year old (or younger) telling them and other adults what to do, and where they are wrong, and believing with every confidence that he is better and smarter than they, and therefore has the right to do so!

To get us started with the problem of arrogance, here�s a short letter illustrating the symptoms of pride overlooked in a child, and the excuses given instead:

Audrey: My six-year-old does something that disturbs me, but I�m not sure what to do about it. He has a habit of trying to joke with adults as if he is on their level. For example, when I go to the doctor and I joke around with her, he feels he can join in too even though I have explained to him that she is an adult, and a doctor, and should be treated with respect. I think it's hard for him because as a family we like to laugh and joke and kid around. He just doesn't know when to stop, and he also seems not to see himself on a different level from the adults. Any suggestions on how to stop this behavior and provide appropriate outlets for his need to entertain? 

Elizabeth: When a child is above the toddler age, and doesn�t seem to be catching on to your verbal teaching, and does this sort of thing repeatedly, it�s time to examine yourself to see if perhaps you are contributing by allowing him to become pridefully puffed up within your home. How do you allow your child to talk to YOU? Do you give him the impression that his opinions are just as valuable as yours? Do you let him think he is just as wise as you? That he has the right to interrupt and speak his mind at any time at home? If you are allowing him to think he is on equal footing with the adults at home, he will logically believe the same applies outside the home, and will act accordingly. 

The first thing you need to do to correct this is to stop making excuses for him. He is not doing it because you joke around at home, or because he �has a need to entertain�. He is doing it because he erroneously, and with pride, believes he is your equal and therefore has the same rights as all other adults, particularly in the area of speaking his mind. You need to determine how you are encouraging this mindset at home and you need to take serious steps to reverse the trend. 

Do not be wise in your own eyes; fear the LORD and turn away from evil.
- Proverbs 3:7

Here�s another example of a parent not recognizing a problem as one of pride, and hence not addressing it properly:

Lindsey: My six-year-old has a problem with talking to me about matters that bother her. When upset, instead of coming to me, she'll go sit by herself, often to pout or cry. When I approach her, she will sit with me, but won't tell me what's wrong. I can ask her, "Did you hurt yourself? Did Mommy do something that upset you? Did your sister do something to you?" But she'll only shake her head and sadly say, �No.� When I ask her what did happen, she'll either say she doesn't want to talk about it, or she will just remain silent. Eventually, she gets over it.

When this type of behavior occurs, what should I do? Should I persist in trying to find out what is wrong? Should I keep trying to convince her to discuss it with me, or should I just let it go?

Elizabeth: I strongly suspect that you are feeling sorry for her and perhaps feeling a little guilty yourself, thinking you might be the cause of her misery. Don�t be deceived. This sounds like self-pity and manipulation to me, which are simply derivatives of pride. I would ask her what she was pouting about and I would expect an answer. I would not accept her refusal to respond. If I really thought she wanted to tell me, but was being held back by shyness, then I might do some gentle probing, but even then, I would ultimately expect an honest answer.

What I sometimes do in similar situations, when a child refuses to answer me, is to have him sit quietly at the table for a while. Then I ask him again. If he is still resistant, I let him know that he won't be leaving the table until he is ready to have an honest discussion with me. I don't get angry with him, but I don't back down either. Yes, I outlast him. He must learn to set aside his pride and communicate. This is one of the most important things you can ever teach your child. It is unacceptable for a person to clam up and punish everyone with his silence. He may appear to be heartbroken over some injustice, but it�s really just a slight injury to his pride that he has turned into manipulation and vindictiveness. The longer a child holds out and gives you The Silent Treatment, the more it indicates that he arrogantly believes he has the right to act this way. I wouldn't want to deal with such a person as an adult, and I can't even imagine being married to someone like this. As always, your job is to teach godliness. Learning not to manipulate, but to humbly communicate, is an important part of godliness.

�Come now, and let us reason together," says the LORD...
- Isaiah 1:18

Esmeralda: How do you handle back talk? I am not talking about outright rebellious sassing, I mean when children pout in response to a request or habitually ask that requests be deferred. Sometimes I have observed these responses tainted by a mean look or verbal anger. Are these times that you would spank? I'm reluctant to spank because these children are expressing how they feel in the only way they know how. Please give me some guidance.

Elizabeth: They are �expressing how they feel in the only way they know how�? Oh dear, red psychobabble flags are going up all over. Nevermind. 

Okay, stop immediately - instead of excusing your child, correct him and educate him. If this is the only way he knows to express his feelings, you need to teach him a more acceptable alternative NOW. 

This is not too hard with young children. Teach them, and then require them, to look you in the eye and politely say, "Yes, Mom" when you ask them to do something. Do not allow the stamping of feet, or whining, or other similar hints of a disgruntled spirit. You can discourage those symptoms in different ways. One is to tell them, "Now go back and do that again with a smile this time," or similar. Repeat until they display a good attitude. Remember that with a young child, if you can change the outside, the inside will invariably follow suit. 

It is unacceptable for a child to pout when given a parental command. Forget the modern drivel that says a child must "express his feelings." If his �feelings� are wrong, he needs to learn how to change them, and show appropriate respect for the mother God placed in authority over him. He needs to learn to set aside his own desires and obey the Commandment that says: "Honor your father and your mother". The Bible contains no loophole permitting disrespect to one's parents just because a child is "expressing his feelings".

"Honor your father and your mother, as the Lord your God has commanded you, that your days may be prolonged, and that it may go well with you on the land which the Lord your God gives you."
- Deuteronomy 5:16

Lena: My firstborn, a son, is almost four. Since turning three, he has been challenging us much more, which I think is normal. He seems better than a few months ago, praise the Lord, but he still will occasionally point his little toddler finger at my husband or me and say something like, "No, Mommy, that's MY job," or "No, Daddy, that's NOT how you do it."
Sometimes it seems harmless, while at other times there seems to be a serious underlying negative attitude to go with it. Please help us. We need some wisdom and I'm praying the Lord might use you to illuminate the issue for us.

Elizabeth: It is common for parents think they should overlook everything that is "normal". I disagree. I don't believe that just because something is "normal" means it is right. As a Christian, I believe that we all are born with a tendency to do the wrong thing at times. So it is "normal" for a child to do the wrong thing at times. That's why God gave children parents. We parents have the job of stopping the "normal" bad things a child does, and replacing them with good habits. Anytime your child displays attitudes and behaviors that are wrong, and bossiness is certainly wrong, then you can and should correct them. You are right to seek out a solution.

Begin by telling him that what he is doing is wrong and he must not do it. With a two or three-year-old, you might say, "Don't tell Daddy what to do. Ask Daddy what he wants you to do." Then make him do as you say. In an older child, you might say, "You sound very bossy, proud, and disrespectful. Don't talk that way to your father. If you want to make a suggestion, word it like this...."

In all instances, stop the bossiness quickly, then instruct the child on what he should be doing, saying, and thinking. See that he demonstrates to you, the correct way to act, so you know he understands, and also so that you know he has a spirit willing to humbly take instruction. 

And calling them to Himself, Jesus said to them, "You know that those who are recognized as rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them; and their great men exercise authority over them. But it is not so among you, but whoever wishes to become great among you shall be your servant; and whoever wishes to be first among you shall be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give His life a ransom for many."
- Mark 10:42-45

Mattie: My five-year-old son is developing a habit I don't like, but I'm hard-pressured to give it a name. I tell him not to do �that,� but I don't even know if he comprehends what I�m referring to. Here's what happens: Whatever the subject, he has to put in his two cents worth and get in the last word. Quite often he goes beyond this to outright disagreement with whatever was said.

For example, if we're discussing plans for him to learn Spanish, he'll pop up with, "No, I want to learn Chinese." Or I'll say, "Take that toy off your head," and he'll say, "But I like it on my head." Recently, he heard me talking with a friend about the leaves falling early this year, and he interjected, "I don't see a single leaf." He's not obviously cocky or belligerent. Instead, he seems cheery and good-natured, but this behavior is progressing into a habit that goes beyond what I think is acceptable.

Elizabeth: Venturing from good-natured opinion into deliberate opposition is being "contrary", the first step toward becoming "argumentative". Again, this stems from arrogance on his part. He thinks his opinion should count for as much as yours and is intent upon proving it to you. So nip this in the bud to head off what will only degenerate. Whenever he exhibits his contrary mode, stop him and offer an appropriate model and insist he follow it. For example:

Mom: I really like it when the curtains are open and the sun shines in.
Contrary child: (with a smile) I like it better when it's dark in here.
Mom: Son, that is a foolish statement. Say: "I agree Mom, the sun is very nice shining in here". 
Child: But Mom, I....
Mom: (in a 'no joking' voice) Say what I told you to say NOW and don't say anything else.
Child: I agree Mom, the sun is very nice shining in here.
Mom: That's better; now don't do that again.

Understand, that to precisely label this behavior for your child as being "contrary" is unnecessary. He has a conscience and knows he is transgressing, despite the absence of a precise label. He knows exactly what you mean when you order him to stop. At some point you will want him to know what being contrary is, how it reflects a rebellious proud heart, why no one likes it, and how damaging the habit can become, but for now it�s enough to just call it back-talking or arguing, and not allow it. 

Wise men store up knowledge, but with the mouth of the foolish, ruin is at hand.
- Proverbs 10:14

Belinda: My eleven-year-old son displays a very self-centered, haughty attitude in our home. He is especially ugly to his eight-year-old sister and is becoming increasingly argumentative and disrespectful toward me too. It�s been suggested that he needs to be �taken down a few pegs�. While I agree I need to teach him humility, I�m concerned about how to do so without crushing his spirit. I know it will be painful for him, but I don't want to squash the child, just his haughty attitude. Any ideas?

Elizabeth: Belinda, if he is as you say, haughty, you are in no danger whatsoever, of "crushing" or �squashing� him. In fact, you will probably find that it is very difficult to even make him feel genuinely embarrassed, let alone properly humbled and repentant. That's the way it is with a proud child and that's why we must be prepared to double our efforts, if we want to get these children to see that they are not God's gift to the rest of mankind. If we don�t take up this challenge, they will eventually become haughty, arrogant adults no one can stand. Haughtiness, according to Proverbs 6:16-19, is one of the seven things �the Lord hates� and that are �an abomination to Him.� This is a very serious matter, please don�t hesitate because you think you will hurt his feelings. You won�t, and if you do, it will work toward your goal, not against it. 

Belinda: But Elizabeth, he has a very sensitive side. It is so odd! He can be just as kind and empathetic as he is haughty! This is why I am feeling the need to be more careful than I might otherwise. When I talk more harshly to him than normal, he feels really bad about it. For example, yesterday, after a scolding, he asked me why I was �being so mean to him.� 

I recognize that what he feels bad about is how he is being treated, not about his wrongdoing. He continually turns things around to be about him. All he sees is himself as the one in the right, the victim. I can tell when he is truly repentant, and it is not as often as it should be. I am not sure how to get across how badly he is behaving in a way that he sees it, and yet not crush him. 

Elizabeth: Please don�t worry about crushing him. Proud people often appear sensitive, but it is only because their ego is easily bruised. Their pride makes them recoil from admitting they are ever wrong. They will argue, protest, manipulate, carry on, and do anything and everything they can think of to ensure that they do not look bad. They want to preserve their superior image. What they really need, in order to acquire some humility, is a realistic picture of themselves; to be shown that they are not as great as they think they are. The need to have their ego bruised a bit. That�s the whole idea behind being �taken down a few pegs.�

Belinda: Okay, I think I understand. But when I do correct him, he wants to argue and protest and it doesn�t seem to do any good. When I won�t let him, he gets very angry. What do I do when he is haughty and ugly, or wants to argue? Do I continue to stop him? What do I say to him? I need some specifics, please!

Elizabeth: If he begins arguing with you, the first thing to do is cut him off and require him to remain silent. Have him sit near you for awhile doing and saying nothing. Then ask him if he is ready to listen respectfully to you and learn something. He�ll probably say, �yes� although he won�t really mean it. He will only mean that he is willing to �act� respectful in terms of what he says, so he doesn�t get into trouble from you. That�s not enough, but it�s a start. You might then move to questioning him about his motives, attitudes and actions, in an attempt to prick his conscience. Persist, asking different thought-provoking questions, until you start getting him to really look at himself and what he is doing and thinking. Ask things like: 

Do you really think that you know more than everyone else does?
Do you think you have always been right about everything?
Do you think that even if occasionally you are right, it's nice to brag about it?
What do you think it says about you when you pick on your sister?
Are you 100% in the right here, or did you sin also? 
Do you think you should be concerned about her sins or about your own sins?

As he responds, elaborate on the correct answer. Show him with black and white facts and concrete examples, how he is not Mr. Wonderful. Go on like this until you see a glimmer of understanding in his eyes. A proud child is usually very reluctant to admit being at fault anywhere (but knows he is), and you have to keep witling away at his ego with reason and evidence until he is forced to acknowledge his shortcomings. 

Ask him if he understands how important humility is - elaborate. Point out scripture to him. Then ask him how he thinks he is exemplifying humility? Tell him that a humble person is a person who can say "I was wrong". Ask your child if he can say that. Ask him if he can say that without adding "but....." Require him to say he was wrong about whatever actions or attitudes precipitated this latest incident. Require him to sincerely apologize to the person he wronged if applicable.

When humbling a child, it is especially helpful to focus on honestly and gratitude. Ask him to honestly list his faults, and what in particular he did wrong in the latest incident, regardless of what the other person did or did not do wrong. Show him that if he is honest with himself he will see that he is not the smartest, best looking, most talented, etc, person on the face of the earth. Get him to see that see that even his good points are really only due to the care, teaching, love, attention, money, etc, of OTHERS, not himself. 

In the end, in order for a proud child to be made humble he must be able to honestly see his faults and be able to admit to them, and he must also see and be grateful to God and others for everything he has or is.

Dawna at a later date: Thank you for all the advice. It worked! My son is much better now, and rarely argues. Now he comes to us to say, "I was thinking that � Do you think that is right?" How sweet it is when your son comes around and wants you to double-check him for errors before he speaks!

If you have been foolish in exalting yourself or if you have plotted evil, put your hand on your mouth.
- Proverbs 30:32

Showing Off 
Maxine: Frequently, my four-year-old asks me to observe as she strikes a dramatic pose designed to earn her praise. She seems to revel in admiration. This doesn�t seem proper to me and I�m wondering if I�m encouraging this proud and vain behavior somehow. Is it possible I am praising her too much about the wrong things. What is causing this excessive self-focus?

Elizabeth: Yes, it is very possible that you are inflating her opinion of herself by flattering her or praising her in excess or about the wrong matters. That would account for her behavior. If a pure-hearted child brings me a picture he drew and wants me to look at it, I do, exclaiming over it and asking him questions about it. Soon the humble little artist is satisfied that Mom loves and approves of him, and he runs off to draw another picture.

However, if the same child draws an intentionally goofy picture, or stands on his head, or does some other conspicuously senseless thing, and cries, "LOOK AT ME!" or "LOOK AT WHAT I CAN DO!", my Mommy Radar goes off and I know I'm witnessing an egotistical episode of showing off. In that case I say seriously, "Okay, that's enough, you look ridiculous doing that. Go do something a mature child would do."

If you notice any inclination toward pride or vanity, limit praise to only praise for sincere acts of kindness and humility. Even then, don�t gush over the child. Let him know you are pleased with him for these things, but only if he maintains a humble spirit for the duration. 

Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind let each of you regard one another as more important than himself.
- Philippians 2:3

Claudia: I see disconcerting signs of vanity in my five-year-old. When shopping with me at age two and a half, she was able to match tops and bottoms together perfectly. I truly think she has a "beauty loving heart", but perhaps because I�ve encouraged this, she is now also showing signs of an undue focus on her own appearance. These are the type of things she does very frequently: 

- She puts her hair up in a variety of hairdos several times a day.
- She loves to play dress-up with old ballet outfits and does so at every opportunity.
- Whenever she can, she adorns herself with necklaces she makes out of beads.
- Every time she passes something reflective (mirror, window, TV) she pauses and savors looking at herself.

Admittedly, some of this is just common to childhood. I am not concerned about her desiring to be pretty, but I am anticipating the coming decades and wondering if I need to head-off what might swell into an alarming degree of vanity.

Elizabeth: I would institute some reasonable "limits". For example, tell her that she has to pick one hair-do for the day and leave it that way. I would not allow her to choose what clothes she wears everyday. Allow that only occasionally. Don't let her play dress-up everyday, or change her clothes multiple times a day. Get rid of the mirrors too. (I removed full-length mirrors from my girls' rooms when they were small to prevent this type of thing. The mirrors reappeared when they were in their late teens and they actually needed them.)

While you are doing all this, be sure to guide her into godly attitudes about appearance. Teach her with all diligence and sincerity, that although God made many beautiful things, He loves inner beauty the most. Ask her if she thinks that a pretty little girl who is sassing her mother still looks pretty. When you see another nicely dressed child misbehaving, point this out and say, "That little girl has a pretty dress, but you don't even notice it when she is acting so awful. The way she is acting makes her look ugly, don�t you think?" When you see a lovely smile, point that out and say, "Wasn't that lady at the counter who helped us, beautiful? I didn't even notice her clothes, but she had such a friendly warm smile it just made her look beautiful." And so on. Teach, teach, teach. Instill values, then teach some more!

"But let him who boasts boast of this, that he understands and knows Me, that I am the LORD who exercises lovingkindness, justice, and righteousness on earth; for I delight in these things," declares the LORD.
- Jeremiah 9:24

In the strictest definition of the word: �Wisdom beyond a child�s years,� precociousness actually sounds like a thing to be desired. However, the common usage of the word indicates the obnoxious �know-it-all� child that we all would prefer to avoid. Precociousness is only cute to naive or proud parents who are not looking toward the future consequences. 

Have you been told you have a �precocious� child? If so, no matter how kindly or with what degree of humor it was said, it should not be taken as a compliment and it�s time to exam your parenting for flaws that may be contributing to this very unattractive and damaging attribute.

Are you over-educating your child? Are you destroying his innocence and puffing him up by teaching him things that should be held back until he is older? Being a homeschooling parent myself, I know the joy of teaching and the temptation to want to teach everything possible. But a wise parent will restrain herself from teaching the wrong things, or things that should wait until the child becomes older and more mature. A young child does not need to know all the medical �facts of life�, for example. If an eight-year-old girl does not know all the graphic details of the birthing process, she won�t be tempted to inappropriately join into an adult conversation and start advising an expectant mother on just how to �pant and blow�. If she has not been educated as to every minute detail of breastfeeding, she won�t be tempted to instruct some new mother on the proper way the get her baby to �latch-on�. Both of the aforementioned examples will surely earn your child an uncomely reputation as a �precocious� and perhaps even �obnoxious� child.

Even more important than what or how much you teach, is the attitude you convey as you teach, and the perspective you teach your child in regard to learning. Never give a child the impression that they know all there is to know on any given subject. Be sure to repeatedly end your teaching sessions (whether they be formal or informal) by making the child aware that there is much more to learn about every subject, and whatever you just taught him is really only a drop in the bucket. Continually impress upon him that others, particularly adults, know far more than he does, and that he should feel honored when he has the opportunity to learn from others. 

Be sure that your children do not believe that they even know more than other children do. Knowing more than others should not be their goal. There should be no competition between themselves and others to accumulate more facts and head knowledge. Their goal in acquiring knowledge should only be so that it might enable them to serve God and others better. And be sure that both you and they value wisdom of character far above head knowledge.

I recall, about 24 years ago, proudly showing my father how my first born son, then only two years old, could read. Instead of giving him (and me) a pat on the head and a �job well done�, my dad soberly advised, �Just don�t let him think he�s too smart.� Humph. I was taken aback and admittedly even a bit miffed by this. But upon reflection, I recognized the wisdom in what my father had offered, and to this day I am very glad that I took it to heart. Do not let your children think they are too smart. 

...we know that we all have knowledge. Knowledge makes arrogant...If anyone supposes that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to know.
- II Corinthians 8:1

Some believe that humility does not have to be taught in the home because the harsh realities of life outside the home will teach it well enough. But does �real life� always succeed in teaching humility? Obviously not. Many adults are monsters of pride -- utterly devoid of humility, and living lives that demonstrate it to all. Clearly, if humility is to be learned, it ought to be taught early, when your child is still in the home. 

Instilling the virtue of humility in your child cannot be accomplished in one easy lesson. It requires constant, vigilant attention to be certain that this spirit permeates your whole household and your entire way of life. Aside from the practical hands-on aids to teaching humility mentioned in the above paragraphs, one of the most effective avenues we can take toward this goal, is to teach our children awe and reverence for God�s ways and works. It is difficult to consider the unimaginable grandeur and expanse of the universe without being struck by ones� own insignificance. It is difficult to ponder the service of the saints throughout scriptures and history without being brought low by our own lack of faith and modesty in comparison. It is impossible to revere Christ, our great model for emulation, who throughout scripture was presented as a humble servant, who, though King of Kings, disdained his rightful glory for the humble life of a man, washed the feet of his friends, and died a criminal�s death for our redemption, without it piercing our hearts and laying bare our own unworthiness. What greater way to teach the preeminent virtue of humility than to impress upon our children this picture and love, mercy and truth.

For through the grace given to me I say to every man among you not to think more highly of himself than he ought to think.
- Romans 12:3

(c) Copyright 2007 L. Elizabeth Krueger.  All rights reserved.
Scripture quotations taken from the NASB.